Le aree protette e la legislazione vigente
Law No 102 of 1983 for Nature
implementing the articles of this Law, a natural protectorate is defined as
any area of Land, or coastal or inland water characterized by flora, fauna,
and natural features having cultural, scientific, touristic or esthetic
value. These areas will be designated and delineated by Decree of the Prime
Minister upon the recommendation of the Egyptian Environmental Affairs
forbidden to commit actions (deeds or activities or undertakings) which will
lead to the destruction or deterioration of the natural environment or harm
the biota (terrestrial, marine or fresh water), or which will detract from
the esthetic (beauty) standards within protected areas.
particular, the following acs are forbidden:
transporting killing or disturbing wildlife;
Damaging or removing any living organisms or natural features and
resources, such as shells, corals, rocks, or soil for any purpose;
or removing plants (from) the protected areas:
Spoiling or destroying the geological structures
(and other features) of areas serving as natural habitats and breeding areas for
plants and animals;
Introducing foreign (non-indigenous) species of biota into the protected area;
the soil, water, or air of the protected areas in any manner.
It is also
forbidden to erect buildings and establishments, pave roads, drive vehicles,
or undertake any agriculture, industrial, or commercial activities in the
protected areas except with the permission of the concerned Administrative
Body and restrictions specified by the Prime Ministerial Decree.
forbidden to undertake activities or experiments in the areas surrounding
designated protectorates, which will have an effect on the protectorates's
environment and natures, except with the permission of the concerned
Administrative Body (responsible for the enforcement of the provisions of this
Law and related decrees) will be specified in a separate Decree issued by the
Prime Minister. This Administrative Body will be empowered to establish regional
offices within the Governorates having protectorates, and will be responsible
for the following functions:
Preparation and execution of necessary studies and programs to enhance
and monitoring natural features and wildlife within the protectorates, and
creating a registry of same;
and coordinating activities related to the protectorates;
and educating the public about the natural resources within protectorates, and
the objectives and reasons for creating protectorates;
information and experiences relevant to the protectorates and natural resources
therein with other countries and international organizations;
(operational) funds referred to in Article VI, below.
for the protection of the environment, promulgated in accordance with
national legislation, will be permitted to seek counsel with the concerned
Administrative and with the judicial bodies to implement the provisions of
the Laws and Decrees concerning the protection of the natural resources of
- A special
Fund will be established to collect donations, grants, and (part) admission fees
(as appropriate) as well as fines incurred by violators of this Law.
- The Fund
will be used for the following purposes:
Supplementing the budget of the Administrative Body responsible for implementing
the provisions of this Law;
Enhancement of the protectorates;
Undertaking surveys and field research on natural resources within the
rewards to persons who provide information concerning offenses or who apprehend
offenders who contravene the provisions of this Law.
Notwithstanding a stronger penalty specified in
another Law, any person who contravenes the provision of Articles II and III of
this Law and the Executive Decrees associated with it, will be find not less the
LE 500 (five hundred Egyptian pounds) and not more than LE 5000 (five thousand
Egyptian pounds) and/or will be imprisoned for not more than one year.
offenders will be fined not less than LE 3000 (three thousand Egyptian pounds)
and not more than LE 10.000 (ten thousand Egyptian pounds) and/or will be
imprisoned for not less than one year.
to this, the offender will bear the cost of removal or reparations specified
by the concerned Administrative Body's representatives will be empowered to
confiscate equipment, weapons or tools used in committing the offense.
and the cost of reparation will be collected through administrative
procedures and without delay.
officials of the concerned Administrative Body responsible for enforcing
this Law and the associated Executive Decrees will be designated in a Decree
(Order) from Minister of justice upon consultation with the concerned
Minister, and shall be accorded magistrate-level judicial powers concerning
violations specified in this Law.
provision contrary to the provisions of this Law is abrogated.
- This Law
is to be published in the Official Gazette and will be enacted within three
months of the date of publication.
- Issued at
the presidency on July 18, 1983 (9 Shawwal 1403 11.) and signed by Hosny
by the Egyptian parliament (people, s Assembly) and Senate (Shura Council) on
July 31, 1983.
Modifica della legge 117 del
1983 (Beni archeologici)
penalties for relics robbers, smugglers
CAIRO — Parliament amended Egypt's
antiquities law on Monday to bring in stiffer punishments for the theft and
smuggling of relics while granting patent rights to the country's antiquities
The amendment requires Egyptians who
have antiquities to report their possessions to the Supreme Council of
Antiquities, headed by Zahi Hawass, in six months. The sale of antiquities is
"Parliament agreed on article eight that
forbids trade in antiquities but allows possession of antiquities with some
individuals, on condition that they cannot use them to benefit others, or to
damage and neglect them," Hawass said.
These relics, he said, can in future
only be given as a gift with the council's authorisation. They may also be
passed on as part of an inheritance.
The antiquities legal counsel, Ashraf
el-Ishmawi, who helped in the drafting of the amendments, clarified that the law
precluded antiques and heirlooms.
He said the new law increased prison
sentences for smuggling artifacts out of Egypt to 15 years and a
one-million-pound (182,815-dollar) fine. The penalty for stealing artifacts has
been doubled to 10 years.
"The goal of the new law is to protect
It also increases the punishment for
tampering with antiquity sites to five years in jail, while a new provision
gives patent rights to the antiquities council on precise replicas of
antiquities that are certified by the council.
The amendments were passed after a
stormy debate in parliament after steel magnate Ahmed Ezz reportedly proposed
that the sale of some artifacts be allowed in Egypt, following the examples of
Italy and France.
Culture Minister Faruq Hosni and Hawass
both threatened to resign if parliament accepted the proposal.
Hawass has doggedly campaigned for a
clampdown on the trade and smuggling of artifacts since he became head of
Egypt's antiquities council in 2002.
He says that 5,000 artifacts have been
returned to Egypt since then, most famously five fragments of an ancient fresco
acquired by the Louvre Museum in France.
The museum returned them to Egypt after
Hawass said they were stolen and threatened a boycott. He has also demanded the
return of the iconic Queen Nefertiti bust from Germany's Neues Museum.
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